In this case, UEs have free access to the femtocell, because there is no differentiation in allowed and not allowed Closed Subscriber group CSG. In the Hybrid model, the femtocell equipment is provided by a company for an individual owner. In this particular case, the UEs belonging to the CSG list have some privileges on the access to the femtocell; however customers not belonging to the CSG list can access the femtocell with restrictions.
Others are prohibited from accessing the Femtocell. These three types of access are described in more details below, showing the advantages and disadvantages of ian williams prekybos sistema one.
Social Technologies. Figure 4. The representation seen mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija Figure 4 shows a device connected to a macro cell, which enters within the femtocell coverage, and automatically updates its connection to the femtocell.
The users are always connected to the strongest server macro cell or femtocell avoiding cross-tier interference, so the throughput of the network increases.
Inside homes or companies, this type of femtocells will be deployed in random locations. Being self-organization would be a good solution to minimize the negative impact of femtocells in other cells. On the other hand, when deployments are done by an operator, interference can be mitigated through the network planning and optimization.
The location, power and frequencies assigned to each femtocell can in this case be planned in advance. However, open access has some drawbacks as well, the biggest of which is the reduction of the performance of the femtocell owner, due to the sharing of the femtocell resources with non-subscribers. Moreover, open access increases substantially the amount of handovers between cells due rinkos tendencijų signalų prekybos sistemos apžvalgos the movement of outdoor users.
A user moving into a residential area handovers from one femtocell to another, or to the macro cell. This will have a negative impact on the operator network because it increases the dropping probability of the call due to failure in the handover process. Different solutions have been proposed in which a centric sensing of the radio channel Tiago Carvalho Moreira, Michele Albano, Ayman Radwan, Jonathan Rodriguez. Alvaro Gomes. Business Mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija for Before open femtocells are widely deployed, research is required in order to support new algorithms to handle more neighbours and their different nature in a fast manner .
Nevertheless, open femtocells reduce the load of the mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija network, and are advantageous for the network operators, who can either support new customers or save money in the macrocell operational costs, for instance by saving power.
Closed access In closed access mode, only a subset of the users Mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategijawhich is defined by the femtocell owner, can connect to the femtocell. If a non-subscriber enters in the femtocell coverage See Figure 4 the user cannot connect because the user does not have permission.
Gauk nemokamą LAISVALAIKIO savaitraštį į savo el.pašto dėžutę:
Nowadays, the closed model is the preferred model by customers for home femtocells. This decision is related to the full control of the femtocells and the list of authorized users. By law, femtocells must be able to perform emergency calls by everyone, even if not on the list of users of femtocell. This feature implies that some resources have to be released to non-subscribers, which is a minor drawback of this model. The main problem of the closed method is the interference between femtocells.
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To reduce this problem, the power radiated by the femtocell must be auto configurable to ensure that coverage is sufficient for subscribers and minimizes interference with neighbouring femtocells and macrocells.
This can be done through self-optimizing the femtocell radiated power, where each femtocell sets its power to a value that on average is equal to the received signal strength from the closest macrocell at a target femtocell radius.
Another solution is the use of sector antennas in the FAPs Femtocell Access Point to minimize the overlapping of coverage areas . The selection of an access control mechanism to femtocells has direct effects on the performance of the overall network, mainly due to its role on the definition of interference, so their features must be carefully studied.
Both access methods open and closed suffer from advantages and disadvantages, which can be seen in Table 2. Table 2. Closed vs. The impact that subscribers might feel that they are paying for a service that is exploited by others must be minimized in terms of performance or via economic advantages, like offer services or reducing costs . Hybrid access In this type of access, the femtocell provides not only authorization to CSG, but also to users who do not belong to CSG.
Therefore, CSG members have special priority over other users. This means that users who belong to CSG have priority in connecting to femtocell and also have a guaranteed minimum QoS.
On the other hand, users out of CSG have limited QoS and when services cannot be provided to Mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija users, due an interruption of femtocell resources, it shall be possible to continue the communication in another cell.
To minimize the impact of connections of users not belonging to CSG, it is possible for the network to reduce the data rate of established communications of non-CSG users . There are many possible solutions to defining the hybrid model, i. Figure 5. For each particular mobile system Wimax, UMTS, LTEthe average throughput and QoS per user can be increased deploying more small cells or sectors, cell sectorisation and optimizing the radio network, particularly minimizing the interference.
One of the most attractive characteristics of the Hybrid access femtocells assumed private to the mobile operator is that it can provide a high quality of service at low expenses no site rent. In fact, if the operator is also a fixed network operator, Hybrid access femtocells can increase its revenue providing xDSL connections that support the femtocells.
The main drawback of using open access public instead of closed access private is the high number of HO that may result to provide the continuity of the service to a user with high mobility. This fact implies a significant increase of signaling data in the network, higher call drop probability and lower QoS.
Next section shows an alternative goal, which is saving energy on the mobile terminal side. To understand the role of the femtocell solution as a player in the mobile value chain, it is necessary to analyze which function each player has. With this approach and by analyzing the whole value chain, the mobile mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija network operator seems to be the closest function related to the femtocell deployments.
In fact, the femtocell solution cannot be seen as a content provider or content aggregator, because it does not provide any different content than actual macrocells to subscribers. On the other hand, it shall provide voice and data services, which is the main role of an MVNO. Finally, subscribers of femtocells have the role of consumers in the value chain, who only receive and use the service provided by femtocells.
Concluding, the femtocell offers a number of important benefits for both consumers and operators. These benefits mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija without requiring users to make changes in their mobile terminals, due to the fact that the network femtocell technology is the same as the macro cell.
For mobile operators, the use mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija femtocells brings new ways to offer attractive services for femtocells users, and represents a high cost effective way of increasing both network coverage and capacity at consumer homes. C2POWER aims at mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija on two novel techniques vertical handovers and cooperative relaying to realize energy saving on the terminal side.
In particular, it considers Femtocells as a new network access type, and integrates it into existing long-range RATs.
- " Огонь коснулся его, не обжигая.
- Знакомый, но по-прежнему внушавший трепет голос зазвучал так тихо и так близко, что Элвину показалось, будто эскорт ничего не слышит.
The visiting mobile terminal will save energy, and both the Network Operator controlling the femtocell and the user who is sharing a broadband access will get revenues. However, in a few cases e. In this section we exemplify this alternative view by showing how a business model can be used to promote power efficiency on mobile equipments. Figure 6. After deploying the femtocell equipment at home, John verifies that his femtocell provides coverage in the neighborhood of his house.
Figure 7. Indoor and Outdoor femtocell coverage 5. Conclusions A good business model is needed to make a company prosper by attracting customers, and by converting customer payments into profits.
This paper considers the telecommunication industry, and analyzes the role of the different actors in the overall value chain when proposing the introduction of femtocells into the scenario.
A business model is provided, to show how both the network operator and the user can obtain benefit by the novel architecture. The role of a business model in C2POWER is both to encourage network operators and users to adopt the solution, and to implement an energy saving policy in the system. Future work will provide further study on the C2POWER approach by means of simulations and of techno-economic analysis, 6.
References Rappa. Marx-Gómez, C. Rautenstrauch, A. Nürnberger, and R. Neuro-fuzzy approach to forecast returns of scrapped products to recycling and remanufacturing, Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. Oliveira and J. Peppard and A. Camponovo and Y. Analyzing the m-business landscape, Annales Des Telecommunications-Annals of Tele com munications, vol. Murata, M. Hasegawa, H.
Murakami, Mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija. Harada, and S. Markendahl, O. Makitalo, J. Phillip Olla, Andish V. A value chain model for mobile data service providers.
Adam M. Brandenburger and Harborne W. Stuart, Jr. Alice Devine and Sanna Holmqvist.
Thema subject categories Release
Mobile mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija content providers and their business models, Stockholm C, Miguel. Telecom Practice, J, Rylander. Jie Zhang and Guillaume de la Roche. Femtocells Technologies and Deployment, Wiley, Femtocelių verslo modelis: energijos taupymo frančizė Tiago Carvalho Moreira Telekomunikacijų institutas, PT Inovacijos, Portugalija, tiago-c-moreira ext.
Verslo modelis yra pagrindinė priemonė siekiant, kad nauja technologija neštų pelną.
Jos aprašymas gali būti naudojamas išryškinant naujos vartotojų naudojamos architektūros pranašumus. Turint tokį tikslą svarbu į verslo modelį pažvelgti kritiškai ir pasverti, į kurią vertės kūrimo grandinę konkreti technologija gali būti įtraukta.
Aprašytame scenarijuje mes analizuojame judriojo ryšio pramonę ir viena iš pagrindinių analizuojamų temų yra skirtingų veikėjų, kurie atsiranda vertės mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija, vaidmuo ir poveikis, kurį Social Technologies.
Šiuo metu femtocelių tinklai pristato naują technologiją, sukurtą siekiant praplėsti judriojo ryšio veikimo zoną uždarose erdvėse. Vartotojo namuose išdėstomos mažos bazinės stotelės su plačiajuosčio interneto prieiga. Taikant šią technologiją judriojo ryšio operatoriai savo vartotojams gali teikti geresnės kokybės paslaugas uždaroje erdvėje.
Pasirinkus šį technologinį sprendimą tinkamas verslo modelis turi parodyti, kaip judriojo telefono ryšio operatoriai pritaikę minėtą technologiją gali gauti pajamų.
Verslo modelis gali padėti siekti skirtingų tikslų. Mes svarstome, kaip vartotojas gali veikti kaip mobiliojo virtualaus tinklo operatorius MVNO angl.
Mobile Virtual Network Operator suteikiant ryšį su kitu mobiliuoju įrenginiu, dalindamasis jo plačiajuosčio ryšio prieigos femtocelių sprendimu. Raktažodžiai: verslo modeliai, bendradarbiavimas, vertės grandinė, tinklo dalijimas. Each case corresponds to a business idea for starting-up a social enterprise either agricultural co-operative or co-operative enterprise in the region.
The first phase of this project is to assess the viability of each business idea, and the second phase is to monitor the social start-ups as mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija are taking off.
This paper was prepared after the completion of the first phase while an IT application was considered as a vehicle to use the proposed method for monitoring the newly created social enterprises. It is expected that social enterprises are considered for financial aid according to this ranking. Furthermore, the rightness of the assessment is a matter of time—as it mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija going to be validated after the project completion.
Practical implications—The practical implications are twofold: the proposed method can be used for both assessing the viability of social enterprise ideas by social entrepreneurs and consultants mostly and monitoring the respective social enterprise while taking off by entrepreneurs, consultants and funding institutions.
Social Technologies, , 1(2) by Mykolas Romeris University Press - Issuu
In addition to these, the proposed methodology opens a larger research window for interested scholars. Moreover, the use of this method for enterprise monitoring—ultimately IT supported—is going to be a pilot research. Keywords: social enterprise, social entrepreneurship, business idea assessment, Romania, micro-regional development. Research type: conceptual paper, case study. In recent years, many initiatives have been taken by individuals, foundations and companies to improve access to food, housing, health care, jobs and banking services for those in need.
To foster more cross-border action, the Commission will propose European statutes for such organisations to serve and promote the social economy. Registered as a legal entity either by natural or legal persons minimum capital required: 30, euro and having the headquarters in one member state, the ECSs constituted under this act may operate in all member states, taking full advantage of the EU mančesterio didmiesčio universiteto tvarumo strategija market; the issue of the European single market was actually discussed two decades ago Swann, They also can develop transnational cooperation activities.
Under the provisions of these EU regulations, the first ECSs were allowed to start up as early asdepending on the transposition of the EU documents in the national legislation of the member states. In the larger context of the social economy development in Romania from a compared European perspective MLFSP,a micro-regional development association namely ADH Association, from Horezu, Romania has successfully applied for EU funding — in order to achieve local economic and social development by promoting social entrepreneurship and starting-up social enterprises.
The Project IDEALIS is aiming at: training potential social entrepreneurs in business management; selecting 25 business ideas for social enterprises and offering professional consulting services to the corresponding social entrepreneurs in order to develop business plans; selecting and co-funding the best business plans; assisting them during the first year of operation ADH, This Project is currently in progress.